Ancient, Non Kurgan (IndoEuropean) Languages

Tucked behind mountains, Dravidian languages, Nihali in south india potentially & Basque in france/spain are the only languages that seem to have somewhat survived the invasions of Indo European men across Europe, Central Asia & South Asia. These languages and communities are stateless – still deeply oppressed within Indo European colonization. The fate of countless others are worse off: coopted as substrates; colonized into extinction and/or lost so we are left but to hypothesize:

Northern Europe

  • most substrate languages are hypothesized (Pictish, Germanic, Goidelic, Pre Sami, Palaeo Laplandic, Pre Finnic)


  • Tartessian


  • Iberian: unrounded vowels appear more than rounded;


  • Basque
  • Aquitanian


  • Etruscan, Veneto through Campania: >700 BCE; isolate? Tyrsenian? influenced Rome/Latin; words were continuous in earlier inscriptions; right to left script; agglutinative; heavy stress on first syllable – possible reason for ‘impossible’ consonant clusters; source of words like familia, person, market, military, arena, etc.; *specula & cistae in usually hypogeals = main material repository
Maximum extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities

  • Camunic, Valcamonia & Valtellina
  • Raetic
  • Paleo Sardinian
  • North Picene
  • Sicanian


  • PreGreek substrate
  • Minoan
  • EteoCretan
  • Cypro-Minoan
  • Lemnian


  • EteoCypriot


  • Vinca language?


  • Hattic
  • Urartrian


  • Hurrian


  • Lullubi


  • Sumerian
  • Elamite


  • Indus


  • Nihali
  • Mil/Dravidian
  • Burushaki


  • Kusunda

“Sri Lanka”

  • Veddah


  • common in Ancient Greece, but less & less in Hellenistic period
  • Etruscan